Though they are from completely different mineral families, topaz and citrine gemstones are not only often mistaken for each other, but they are both the birthstones for the month of November.

While the citrine ranges from pale yellow to brownish in hue, topaz gemstones are traditionally colourless and can be tinted by impurities to reflect these typical citrine colours. Brazil is a key global source of both of these gemstones, and common jewellery settings for these November birthstones include pendants, necklaces, rings and men’s cufflinks.

Read on to learn more about the diverse and stunning topaz and citrine gemstones.

What is a topaz?

The availability, stunning colours and solid hardness of the topaz gemstone makes it one of the most popular stones on the global market. Pure topaz gemstones are colourless, but can be tinted by impurities to incorporate any colour of the rainbow – the most valuable being pink, blue and honey-yellow. The very first colourless topaz was discovered in 1740 in Brazil.

The state of Minas Gerais in Brazil is one of the world’s most important sources for high-quality topaz – in fact, it’s been mined there for over two centuries. When it comes to other colours and varieties, sections of north-western Pakistan are renowned for pink topaz production, and a few historic Russian localities, Sri Lanka, Mexico and Namibia, (to name a few places), are also noted at topaz hotspots.

History of the topaz

Many believe the word ‘topaz’ is derived from the Sanskrit word ‘tapas’, meaning ‘fire’ – however, others associate the gemstone’s name with a small island in the Red Sea named Topazios. Though the island never produced topaz, it was renowned for its plentiful peridot sources, which were often confused with topazes.

The ancient Greeks believed topaz would give them strength, whereas Europeans within the Renaissance period thought topaz could break magic spells. Furthermore, popular ancient Roman mythology believed that if topaz was held close to poisoned food or drink, it would change colour to signal danger to the consumer.

What are the different varieties of topaz?

One of the most recognisable varieties of topaz is the Imperial topaz. Orangeish-yellow in hue, this is the most valuable form of topaz on the market. Other varieties of topaz gemstones have been coined by jewellery dealers, and include mystic, sherry, white, Azotic, London blue and rutilated topazes.

What is a citrine?

The citrine gemstone can be defined as a pale yellow quartz found within the Earth’s crust (similar to amethysts). It ranks at a 7 on the hardness scale, and in its pure form, it’s transparent, and its colour is caused by chemical impurities or faint traces of iron – often appearing from yellow to reddish-orange in hue.

Bolivia, Madagascar, Spain and Uruguay are some of the best sources in the world for citrine gemstones, but most of the globe’s citrine production comes from Brazil. However, most citrines produced in Brazil are likely heat-treated amethysts, appearing orange, reddish and sherry coloured.

History of citrines

Believed to be derived from the French word for ‘lemon’ (‘citron’), the citrine gemstone has been popular since ancient times; in part, thanks to its similarities to the other November birthstone, topaz. It was notably used for stunning jewellery by the ancient Romans, and held great significance in prized pieces in the Art Deco period between the two World Wars. Many notable figures and celebrities have worn citrine jewellery throughout history, including Joan Crawford, Greta Garbo and Kate Middleton.

One of the most notable periods in history for the citrine gemstone was in the mid-18th century, when mineralogists realised that smoky quartz and amethysts could be treated to produce honey hues of citrine; thus making the gemstone more abundant and affordable on a global scale.

What are the different varieties of citrine?

One of the most distinguishable citrine varieties on the market is the lemon quartz. Light to dark yellow in colour, this citrine lacks orange or brown tints, and is very popular on the global jewellery market. Other citrine varieties include yellow, golden, madeira and palmeria citrines.

How did topazes and citrines become the birthstones for November?

Scholars can trace the original calendar of gemstones, including the topaz and citrine, back to the Breastplate of Aaron as described in the Bible’s book of Exodus. The Breastplate was adorned with gemstones that represented the tribes of Israel. Based on this model, the modern birthstone list was created in 1912, and has since been defined by the National Association of Jewellers of the United States.

As well as serving as one of the November birthstones, blue topazes are often gifted for fourth wedding anniversaries, and citrine gemstones are gifted for 13-year anniversaries.

What jewellery pieces do topazes and citrines go best with?

The durability and popularity of the topaz gemstone make it a popular choice for many jewellery pieces, including rings, necklaces, earrings, pendants and bracelets. Citrines, on the other hand, are most commonly used in pendants or as the centrepiece for rings or earrings. Often cut into oval or rectangular shapes, lesser-quality citrines are often combined with white quartz to make beads for bracelets or necklaces. For men, citrines are also used in cufflinks and male rings.

When cleaning topaz and citrine jewellery pieces, take care to avoid cracking or chipping. Avoid steam cleaning or sudden temperature changes that cause internal breaks – warm, soapy water works best.

Whether it’s a pair of topaz earrings or a citrine pendant, look no further than the expert team at Perth’s Allgem Jewellers for your next piece of jewellery. Conveniently located in Hay Street Mall in the Perth CBD, Allgem’s wide range of gemstone jewellery pieces, including a range of stunning sapphire jewellery pieces, is sure to suit all design preferences. Contact our professional master jewellers or visit our showroom to take a look at our wide range of luxurious gemstone jewellery.

Whilst not all men wear jewellery everyday, the trend of male-specific jewellery is on the rise in a big way in Australia. The metallic tones of jewellery can greatly complement a man’s suit, and serves to add a metallic embellishment to any outfit worn.

Here are four essential jewellery pieces every man should own.


Dress Rings

Though not all men would have worn one in their lifetime, dress rings are emerging as a jewellery must-have for both sexes. Rings are a great entry point into the large range of male-specific jewellery on the market, and aren’t solely restricted to your wedding finger anymore.

Three of the most common dress ring styles for men are wedding bands, signet rings and ‘fashion’ rings. Wedding band designs for men tend to be clean, simple and inward-facing, signet rings are often sealed with a crest or symbol, and ‘fashion’ rings make way for more creative, eccentric choices.


Cuff Links

Cuff links are one of the most functional pieces of jewellery on the market, tasked with clasping the front of a dress shirt in place – normally where buttons would sit. Metallic cuff links usually display simple yet formal designs, and are made from precious metals. However, like other male jewellery pieces, cuff links come in a large range of shapes, sizes, colours and materials. Some examples of cuff link styles include whale back cuff links, stud cuff links, knot cuff links, or even fabric cuff links.


Tie Bars

A tie bar is a more traditional male accessory. Designed for use with a tie, a tie bar is intended to secure your tie to your shirt. However, tie bars don’t always need to have a functional use. In fact, many tie bars are now being used as fashion statements or additional accessories.

Types of tie bars include tie tacks (which function similar to a pin), side clasp tie bars, hinged tie clips, skinny tie clips and think tie clips. For formal outfits, a minimal tie clip has a subtle, yet professional effect. In contrast, wearing a fun, statement tie clip with a smart casual outfit can make a fantastic fashion statement.


Gents’ Pendants

Pendants for men, typically found on necklaces, offer a rugged, natural appearance when worn in a casual setting. Like many other types of male jewellery, necklaces are highly customisable and can come in a variety of styles, materials and sizes.

A pendant-style necklace, however, rests a single ornament on a long chain. Pendants on men are usually tucked beneath a shirt, but may also be worn on the outside of casual t-shirts.


Where To Buy Men’s Jewellery In Perth

Whether it’s a dress ring, cuff links, a tie bar or a pendant, look no further than the expert team at Perth’s Allgem Jewellers. Conveniently located in Hay Street Mall in the CBD, Allgem’s wide range of jewellery specifically tailored to men is sure to fit your stylistic needs. Contact our professional master jewellers or visit our showroom to take a look at our wide jewellery range for men.

A jewellery valuation provides an expert opinion on the value of a piece of jewellery and its place within the current market. Be it a family heirloom, wedding ring or another piece of seemingly valuable jewellery, a jewellery valuation will provide invaluable advice about the best course of action to take to retain the most value from your piece.

With an accurate, expert opinion, a jewellery valuation can clearly highlight the worth, ownership and value associated with a piece of your jewellery. Here are a few reasons why it pays to get a jewellery valuation.


Types of Valuations

1.      Insurance replacement

The most common type of jewellery valuation is for insurance replacement. If a piece of jewellery is damaged, lost or stolen, most insurance companies require a valuation to determine the item’s insurance value and any applicable premiums. When performed correctly, this type of valuation provides the jewellery owner with proof of ownership, detailed description and value – all pieces of information your insurance provider is likely to require (as per their PDS’).


2.      Estate jewellery valuations

A jewellery valuation will be able to clearly verify the value of someone’s estate for the lawyer’s benefit, making the will process as smooth and painless as possible. Within an estate valuation, the valuer will be cognisant of the types of metals or gems used in the piece of jewellery, the value of the item within the market, the condition of the piece and, if applicable, the certification of the jewellery’s stone against Australian standards.

The valuation process for estate jewellery is similar to that of a second-hand or private sale, in that these types of valuations rely heavily on the piece’s market value – whereas valuations for insurance purposes are less concerned with the jewellery’s situation in the modern market.


Valuation Approach

A jewellery valuation is an exact process that requires extensive experience, knowledge and concentration from your valuer. Professional jewellery valuations involve cleaning, weighing and photographing the piece of jewellery to provide the owner with a comprehensive valuation portfolio. This portfolio will include a detailed description and condition statement that complement an overarching estimation of the jewellery’s valuation within the current market – and, if applicable, qualification for the piece’s insurance claim requirements. Once you have your valuation, it is important to store it somewhere safe, and to have it updated every few years.

The cost of a jewellery valuation will depend on your jeweller’s fees. Jewellery valuers can charge based on time spent, or percentage worth per jewellery item.


Where To Get A Jewellery Valuation In Perth

For insurance purposes, it is extremely important to undergo a jewellery valuation in your primary city of residence. For Perth citizens, it’s a no-brainer – Allgem Jewellers has the expert knowledge and experience to provide detailed and accurate valuations of jewellery. Conveniently located in Hay Street Mall in the CBD, our services involve the valuation of custom jewellery, gemstones and more. Contact our professional master jewellers to book in for your next jewellery valuation.